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ORIENTATION I – WATER & ENVIRONMENT

Trace metal transfer in the Saigon River water basinBecause of their toxicity and their ability to accumulate in living organisms, trace metal (TM) are important pollutants to aquatic ecosystems. TM naturally originated from erosion and leaching of soils are transported mainly via the suspended solids (SS). Yet human activities can be considered a major source of pollution to the aquatic environment (fluvial, estuarine and marine). Biogeochemical mechanisms occurring within the river, estuary or sediment, play a key role in the metal distribution and their speciation. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of ETM vis-à-vis living organisms depend on this speciation but also on their reactions to the cell surface of organisms and their connections to sensitive intracellular sites.

My research focuses on the transfer of trace elements and ultra-traces in the continuum river-estuary-coastal zone and through the aquatic food web. At the same time, I’m interested to characterize the roles of regional hydrodynamic (flow, tide), the particle dynamics and physicochemical environmental conditions on these transfers.

Changing hydrological and physicochemical conditions in the tropical Saigon River and the presence of various environments (aquaculture, agriculture, urban area, mangrove, estuary) are great environments to conduct such research activities. A research team on this theme is being consolidated in order to carry out the following research actions

  • Integrative baseline assessment of trace metal contents in the Saigon River
  • Impact of a megacity on the dynamic of aggregates and inorganic substances bound particles
  • Roles of estuarine gradients on trace metal export from the Saigon River to the mangrove and coastal zone
  • trace metal bioaccumulation in local aquatic foodweb

 

This project in conducted in collaboration with Emilie STRADY (LTHE, CARE) and Dr DINH Quoc Tuc, Dr Nguyen Phuoc Dan, MINH Tam Le, Khanh and Viet from CARE.

Plastics and microplastics transport in River: from sampling to fluxes estimate?The management of plastic debris is one of the new environmental challenges. Despite the ubiquity of plastics, macroplastiques to microplastic (MP <5mm) in the continental environment, their distribution and behavior in areas such as lakes, rivers, estuaries remain very poorly understood in comparison with the ocean environment. The questions on their transport and fate in the terrestrial environment remain open today.

In Southern countries, particularly Vietnam, the mismanagement of plastic waste (4th in the world for Vietnam; Science 13 Feb 2015) leads to significant releases in coastal waters. Locally, the macroscopic plastic waste discharges are considered as a visual discomfort for the attractiveness of big cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC).

Solid transport plastics and MP in the rivers is very little known today. The main reason is historical as this thematic began in Biological Oceanography. Thus, sources and continental transport of MP are recent questioning, and sampling strategies used to collect and quantify the MP are difficult to transpose into river. Studies implemented in continental environment to quantify and estimate the transport of PM flows are based on snapshot sampling with plankton nets either on the setting up nets on the transect of the river either over a given period . The surface area / volume ratio of plastics in surface water is much smaller than in oceanic gyres, the amount of MP recovered and therefore its mass becomes a critical parameter for determining concentrations and MM flows into the river, but also for subsequent chemical analysis.

The objective of this emerging research group is to optimize a sampling strategy and quantification of plastics and microplastics in the Saigon River in Vietnam, to ultimately consider the homogeneity of transport in the water column (bed load) and to estimate the flux transported in the river.

This project is conducted in collaboration with Dr Bruno TASSIN, Dr Johnny GASPERI and Rachid DRIS (PhD) from LEESU (Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systems Urbains, France), MINH Tam Le from CARE and Dr Emilie STRADY from CARE et LTHE.

ORIENTATION II – WATER & RISK

Large rivers and deltas are the richest aquatic ecosystems in the world. They are subject to rapid changes, depending on both anthropogenic pressure, ongoing climate changes and feedback loops (Anthony and Gratiot, 2012; Bauer et al., 2013). The adaptation of deltas to different pressures implies in particular to measure, understand and predict the evolution of water and sediment flows; physical and biogeochemical mechanisms that govern these flows and in particular the partition between particulate and dissolve phase.
The proposed interdisciplinary approach will allow, in the short and medium term, to answer a crucial question: What are the impacts of coastal urbanization on the quality of the environment? In particular, we wish to characterize the dynamics of flocs (and adsorbed nutrients) in order to understand how wastewater from Ho Chi Minh City impacts the Can Gio mangrove estuarine, certified by UNESCO.
Large rivers and deltas are the richest aquatic ecosystems in the world. They are subject to rapid changes, depending on both anthropogenic pressure, ongoing climate changes and feedback loops (Anthony and Gratiot, 2012; Bauer et al., 2013). The adaptation of deltas to different pressures implies in particular to measure, understand and predict the evolution of water and sediment flows; physical and biogeochemical mechanisms that govern these flows and in particular the partition between particulate and dissolve phase.

The proposed interdisciplinary approach will allow, in the short and medium term, to answer two crucial questions:

Question 1) What processes have led to the coastal erosion of the Mekong Delta and its acceleration in the last decade (average loss of 1,5 football pitches per day over the period 2007-2012)?
Question 2) What are coastal, physically viable and socially acceptable coastal protection solutions that can be successfully implemented in this coastal mangrove environment, considering the natural geomorphological balances that contributed to the progression of the delta for more than 3500 years?

ORIENTATION III – WATER & HEALTH

The Project on Mechanism of Arsenic Release in Groundwater and Sediment in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta was a lengthy gestation of discussion since the late of 2013 and then was founded in early 2014 (so-called Arsenic Group). The Arsenic Group consists of members from various and multi-disciplinary research expertise, including environmental microbiology; geochemistry; geohydrology; and water resources engineering and management. The Group was teamed up and led by 3 key team leaders from EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland), UJF in Grenoble (France) and HCMUT (Vietnam). They are:

  • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland:
  • Rizlan Latmani-Bernier (Team Leader of EPFL)
  • Matthew Reid
  • Maria Pilar Asta
  • Yuheng Wang
  • Manon Frutschi
  • Université Joseph Fourier –UJF in Grenoble, France:
  • Laurent Charlet (Team Leader of Grenoble)
  • Tesserand Delphine
  • Phan Thi Hai Van (PhD student)
  • Bonnet Timothee
  • Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), Vietnam:
  • Associate Professor Vo Le Phu (Team Leader of HCMUT – CARE)
  • Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quynh
  • Ho Thi Ngoc Ha
  • Pham Cong Hoai Vu (Master student)
  • Nguyen Thi Bao Tu (Master student)
Kick-off MeetingKick-off Meeting at HCMUT- CARE Fieldtrip Sample ProcessingFieldtrip Sample Processing In-lab Skill TrainingIn-lab Skill Training
It is aim to survey on the current status of drinking water supply access in the district hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City as well as the Mekong Delta provinces in Vietnam. Then the collected data will be used to develop a suitable safe water treatment technology (Water Kit) for district hospitals. This system can be expanded for schools and public area. This study will be carried out in four stages as follows: (1) Evaluate the access to safe drinking water in the context of primary health care; (2) Analysis of water treatment options based on low-cost, effective treatment of high pollution and easy operation; (3) Propose and develop a set of essential water treatment kit (Water Kit); (4) Implementing of technology commercialization in the region.Project outcomes: 01 peer-review journal paper, 01 international conference paper and two environmental engineers on water technology.

Lab-scale water treatment kit at CARE labFig 1. Lab-scale water treatment kit at CARE lab

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